A resistor is an electronic component used to reduce the current flow. A practical example for this process is that the flow of water reduces while passing through a small pipe reduces the flow speed of

water.. here here the water acts as current and the small pipe act as resistor! now you’ll get an idea about a resistor!

Calculated using OHM’S LAW! And hence the resistor is measured using the unit of ohms!

color coding of resistors:( used to find the resistance)

The resistance of the resistor & its tolerance are specified on the resistor with color code bands that gives the value of the resistance.

The color code is classified into 3:

4 bands: (digit, digit , multiplier, tolerance).

5 bands: (digit, digit, digit , multiplier, tolerance).

6 bands: (digit, digit, digit , multiplier, tolerance , temperature coefficient).

tolerance is the allowable error of the resistor

Hope it helps!


A capacitor is an electronic component with 2 terminals. It is generally used to store electrostatic energy from the electric fields. Inside the capacitor there are 2 electric conductors seperated by insulator. It is used for the process of loading and unloading


Insulator–> Dielectric(doesn’t have the ability to conduct current)

Example for dielectrics are glass, woods, e.t.c;

A schematic diagram of capacitor is shown below:

A practical way for realizing the working of a capacitor is, just imagine yourself with a water dam. In a water dam, when the level of the water gets increased above the dam’s capacity it releases the excess of water, Likewise a capacitor works… Now replace the dam with a capacitor and water with energy, the capacitor generally stores the energy like water and when the energy get increased above its capacity level it releases the excess energy stored. Now you’ll get a basic idea about capacitor right?

Capacitors are available with different sizes and different storage capacity. The size may also indicates the storage capacity of the capacitor…



In our day to day life we use transistors in most of the electronic devices by without knowing

its use..

And so this will help you to get a knowledge about transistors!

A TRANSISTOR is an electronic device with 3 major terminals for external connections.

They are,




It can also be used to amplify and switch the electric signals. The transistor is majorly classified into two types


1.B.J.T(Bipolar Junction Transistor)

2.F.E.T (Field Effective Transistor)

In early days vacuum tubes are used in the place of transistor. Since it takes large space and the production of enormous heat will become their major disadvantages At the the same time it gives a new way to transistors, Because of the reduced size and reliability Transistor had reached a peak level in the field of electronics.

The practical transistors are shown below:

The transistors we are using mostly are NPN since the flow of N(electron) is fast while compared with P(holes)..

IC(Integrated Circuits)we are using today consists of several number of transistors placed inside.

While talking about the working of a TRANSISTOR compare it with a water tap. A water tap controls the flow of water, As like the same way here replace the WATER TAP with TRANSISTOR and water as current…..

From the above example we can say that a transistor is a device which controls the flow of current and also acts like a switch .

Hope it helps!


So What is a Cable?

A cable is a medium with which the data gets transmitted. Okay In simple Consider a cable as a river, Here how the water gets flow? It depend upon the river right? Likewise here the data is considered as the water which flows through a river called medium (cables).

                   The general purpose of cables is to transfer data from one place to another. According to the

size of data and type of data the cables may get vary. Some of the commonly used cables are,

1 Twisted pair

2 Coaxial cable

3 Optical Fiber

Lets get each of this one get explained in detail as follows:


These cables get famous because of its size. As the name suggests this cables consists of 2 conducting wires are connected in a twisted manner. This type of cables are thin in size. Because of this advantage most of the house wiring and industrial wiring make use of this wires.

A best example for this is you can see the supply wires or connecting wires used in your home. An other well known example is TELEPHONE wiring. In telecom network twisted pairs were used for a long period, till now we are using it for data transfer. (Here data is the information we are sending).

  1. CO AXIAL:

Why it is called as coaxial? Yeah! there is a reason. In general this cable is made up of one physical channel that carries the signal surrounded by another concentric physical channel, both running along the same axis. And so they are called as Co-Axial cables.

These kind of cables are mostly used for transmitting audio and video signals. This coaxial cable is coated with 3 to 4 layers to avoid the data loss. The central conducting material may be a copper or copper coated silver.

A practical example for this cable is DTH connecting cable. This are even used in telephone companies sometimes


Optic Fiber cables are are made up of 2 major components they are glass and light. In this fiber optic cable the data get transferred in the form of light which get reflected by the glass coating available in the inner layer of this cable to transmit the data over a long distance.

This is one of the most used cable nowadays. Telephone Companies and many ISP Providers using this cables for better and fast transmission.

Not only this! There are several kind of cables available in the market which are used based on the type of application we are using.

Hope it helps


Before get into the topic of BLUETOOTH, We must know the need for this invention.

Earlier data such as audio, video, text, etc., were sent in a wired manner (i.e) The data were sent through wires (cables) such as co-axial, twisted pair, fiber optics. This reduces the loss of data during the transmission and also the data can be send  in a guided manner  (i.e) it can only able to travel on a decided path.

Even though it contains many advantages, The main disadvantage of this wired data transfer is that it can be implemented over a certain distance only, for a long distance transmission it needs more wires and it costs more. To overcome this disadvantage people need a connection free transmission. Since this transmission do not need any wires,  it is named as wireless.

These wireless transmission can’t be visible to humans. Earlier this wireless transmission can be made only between few hundred yards, But the development in this field made this transmission possible between any part of the world with high speed.

Most of the latest electronics gadgets comes with a feature of Bluetooth for making a wireless connection for control. We all using BLUETOOTH in our day to day life very well , for example Bluetooth headsets, DVD players, computer systems, mobile phones, etc., which makes use of the Bluetooth. But most of us didn’t know whats is behind this Bluetooth.

BLUETOOTH the name is derived from Herald Bluetooth, king of Norway and Denmark at 10th century.

The Bluetooth logo is made by merging the Nordic Runes analogous to the modern latin H & B: haglaz & berkanan.

            Bluetooth is one of the wireless system made for transmitting the data over a short distance.

It uses low power radio waves for data transmission. It actually works with the frequency range between 2.40 to 2.48 gigahertz. This Bluetooth data transmission occurs in an unguided manner and so maximum of 8 people can get connected to a single device and this transmission is possible only for the device which are placed inside the range of 10 meters. Behind this range the transmission may not get finished successfully. even though many devices used for data transmission BLUETOOTH has its own style in this field of wireless….

We can use this Bluetooth module to connect and make interaction with the nearby device without installing any wire connection.

Hope it Helps!